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The Thain's Book
An encyclopedia of Middle-earth and Numenor

Dunedain of the North

Kings of Arnor
Kings of Arthedain
Chieftains of the Dunedain
Other Dunedain of the North


Kings of Arnor


Elendil

See the full-page entry for Elendil.


Isildur

See the full-page entry for Isildur.


Valandil

Son of Isildur; third King of Arnor. Valandil was Isildur's fourth and youngest son. He was born in Rivendell in 3430 of the Second Age. That same year, the Last Alliance of Elves and Men was formed to oppose Sauron. Isildur and his three eldest sons Elendur, Aratan, and Ciryon marched to Mordor to fight the War of the Last Alliance, while Valandil remained in Rivendell with his mother.

Isildur and his sons survived the war, but on the way back to Rivendell in the year 2 of the Third Age they were slain by Orcs in the Gladden Fields. Isildur's esquire Ohtar brought the shards of Narsil to Valandil in Rivendell.

Upon coming of age in the year 10, Valandil became the King of the North-kingdom of Arnor. Valandil did not claim the title of High King of both Gondor and Arnor as his father had done. Instead, the South-kingdom of Gondor was ruled by Valandil's cousin Meneldil - the son of Isildur's brother Anarion - and the two kingdoms became separated.

Valandil moved to the northern capital of Annuminas. A replica of the Elendilmir was made for him to replace the original which Isildur had been wearing when he was lost.

Valandil died in 249. He was succeeded by his son Eldacar, and all the subsequent leaders of the Dunedain of the North were his direct descendants. At the end of the Third Age, Aragorn of the House of Valandil became King of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor.

Names & Etymology:
Valandil means "friend of the Valar" or "devoted to the Valar." The element ndil means "devotion." Valandil was named after his ancestor who was the first of the Lords of Andunie in Numenor.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Council of Elrond," p. 257, 261; "The Great River," p. 409
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 366
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for val and (n)dil

Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 271, 277, 278 note 3, 284-5 note 33
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 191-92, 207-8; "The Tale of Years of the Third Age," p. 227-28


Eldacar

Fourth King of Arnor. Eldacar was the son of Valandil. He was born in the year 87 of the Third Age. Eldacar succeeded his father as King of Arnor in 249. He ruled until his death in 339, when he was succeeded by his son Arantar.

Names & Etymology:
The name Eldacar - also spelled Eldakar - means "elf helm" from elda meaning "elf" and karma meaning "helmet" from kár meaning "head."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for EL and KAS

The History of Middle-earth, vol. VII, The Treason of Isengard: "The Great River," p. 366 note 18 (meaning of Eldacar)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 192


Arantar

Fifth King of Arnor. Arantar was the son of King Eldacar. He was born in 185 of the Third Age. In 339, Arantar became King upon the death of his father. He ruled until his death in 435 and was succeeded by his son Tarcil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Arantar is composed of aran meaning "king" and tar meaning "high, lofty."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for ar(a) and tar

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 192


Tarcil

Sixth King of Arnor. Tarcil was born in 280 of the Third Age. He was the son of Arantar. He succeeded his father as King in 435 and ruled until his death in 515. Tarcil was followed by his son Tarondor.

Names & Etymology:
Also spelled Tarkil. The name Tarcil means "high man" in Quenya. It was also used to mean "one of Numenorean descent." The word tar means "high." The ending cil or kil is from khil meaning "follow." Mortal Men were called the Hildor, or "followers," by the Elves.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
Appendix F of The Lord of the Rings: "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age," p. 409
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KHIL and TA, TA3

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 192
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Tarondor

Seventh King of Arnor. Tarondor was the son of Tarcil. He was born in 372 of the Third Age. Tarondor became King of Arnor after his father's death in 515. He died in 602 and was succeeded by his son Valandur.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Tarondor is uncertain. The first element tar means "high" and is used as a prefix to mean "King." The second element ondor is unclear. It may be from the Quenya ondo meaning "stone" in reference to Gondor (Quenya = Ondonore) since there was also a King of Gondor named Tarondor, but this seems unusual for a King of Arnor. The word ndor means "land, country." The ending dor is also used in Sindarin names to mean "high, noble," but Tarondor is a Quenya name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for GOND and TA, TA3

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 192
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist

The Tolkien Language List


Valandur

Eighth King of Arnor. Valandur was born in 462 of the Third Age. He was the son of Tarondor. Valandur became King of Arnor after his father's death in 602. He was slain in unknown circumstances in 652 and was followed by his son Elendur.

Names & Etymology:
The name Valandur means "servant of the Valar." The ending ndur meaning "to serve."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297 footnote
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Elendur

Ninth King of Arnor. Elendur was the son of Valandur. He was born in 552 of the Third Age. Elendur became King after his father was killed in 652. He ruled until his death in 777 and was succeeded by his son Earendur.

Names & Etymology:
The name Elendur means "Star servant." The word elen means "star" and is here probably a reference to the Elves, or Eldar, the People of the Stars. The ending ndur meaning "to serve."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297 footnote
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Eärendur

Tenth King of Arnor. Earnedur was born in 640 of the Third Age. He was the son of Elendur. Earendur had a son named Amlaith and at least two younger sons. When Earendur died in 861, his sons divided Arnor into three Kingdoms - Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur. Amlaith became the first King of Arthedain, and two other sons ruled Cardolan and Rhudaur. Earendur was therefore the last King to rule the entire North-kingdom until Aragorn, King Elessar.

Names & Etymology:
The name Eärendur is Quenya meaning "Sea servant" or "(professional) mariner" from Eär meaning "the Sea" and the ending ndur meaning "to serve." Earendur's descendants used Sindarin names rather than Quenya.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 320
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297 footnote
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Aragorn II - King Elessar

See the full-page entry for Aragorn II.


Eldarion

See People of Gondor - Eldarion.


Kings of Arthedain


Amlaith of Fornost

First King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Amlaith was born in 726 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Earendur of Arnor. He had at least two younger brothers.

When Earendur died in 861, there was dissension among his sons. They divided Arnor into three Kingdoms - Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur. Amlaith ruled Arthedain, which was in the west between the River Lune and the Brandywine and also included the land between the Brandywine and the Weather Hills north of the Great East Road. Amlaith moved his capital from Annuminas to Fornost.

The direct line of Isildur was continued in Arthedain through Amlaith's descendants. Amlaith died in 946 and his son Beleg succeeded him as the second King of Arthedain.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Amlaith is not known. The first element may be am meaning "up." The meaning of the element laith is unknown. It also occurs in the word Limlaith, an Elvish name for the River Limlight. Possible roots of laith include LEK meaning "loose, release" (from which leithian, "release," is derived); LAK meaning "swift"; or LAIK meaning "keen, sharp, acute."

There is also the name Lalaith, "laughter," but this appears to be derived from lala meaning "laughter" plus the suffix -aith or -eth.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 320
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for LAIK, LAK, and LEK

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193; "The Shibboleth of Feanor," p. 343, 359 note 29 (on lala)
Musings on Limlight


Beleg

Second King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Beleg was born in 811 of the Third Age. He was the son of Amlaith and the grandson of Earendur. Earendur was the King of the entire North-kingdom of Arnor, but when he died in 861 there was a dispute among his sons and Arnor was divided into three Kingdoms - Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur. Amlaith, the eldest son, became the first King of Arthedain, and it was through his descendants that the line of Isildur was maintained. Amlaith made Fornost his capital city.

Beleg succeeded his father as King of Arthedain in 946 and ruled until his death in 1029. He was followed by his son Mallor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Beleg means "mighty." Beleg was also the name of an Elf who was a great archer in the First Age.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for beleg


Mallor

Third King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Mallor was the son of King Beleg of Arthedain. He was born in 895 of the Third Age. Mallor succeeded his father as King in 1029. During his reign in 1050, the Hobbits of the Harfoot branch crossed into Eriador over the Misty Mountains after a shadow fell on Greenwood the Great, afterwards known as Mirkwood. Although it was not known at the time, Sauron had established the stronghold of Dol Guldur in the forest.

Mallor ruled until his death in 1110 and was succeeded by his son Celepharn.

Names & Etymology:
The name Mallor may be composed of mall meaning "gold" (the metal) and lor from glor or glaur meaning "golden light, radiance."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 366
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for LAWAR, GLAWAR and SMAL

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for laure and mal


Celepharn

Fourth King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Celepharn was the son of Mallor. He was born in 979 of the Third Age. Celepharn succeeded his father as King of Arthedain in 1110. During his reign around 1150, the Fallohide and Stoor branches of Hobbits moved into Eriador. Celepharn ruled until his death in 1191. He was followed by his son Celebrindor.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Celepharn is uncertain. It may be composed of the word celeb meaning "silver" and sarn meaning "stone."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 366
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for celeb and sarn

A Gateway to Sindarin by David Salo, p. 346


Celebrindor

Fifth King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Celebrindor, son of Celepharn, was born in 1062 of the Third Age. He became King of Arthedain after his father's death in 1191. Celebrindor ruled until his death in 1272 and was succeeded by his son Malvegil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Celebrindor may be composed of celebrin meaning "like silver" and the ending -dor from taur meaning "high, noble, lord."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KYELEP, TELEP and TA, TA3

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for celeb


Malvegil

Sixth King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Malvegil was the son of Celebrindor. He was born in 1144 of the Third Age. Malvegil became King of Arthedain after his father's death in 1272.

During Malvegil's reign around 1300, the Lord of the Nazgul came to the North and established the realm of Angmar. He became known as the Witch-king of Angmar and he made war upon the Dunedain of the North. Orcs and other creatures as well as evil Men were in his service and threatened the lands of the North-kingdom.

Malvegil died in 1349 and was succeeded by his son Argeleb I, who ruled for only seven years before he was killed in battle against the forces of Angmar in 1356.

Names & Etymology:
The name Malvegil may mean "golden sword" from mal meaning "gold" and vegil from megil meaning "sword."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 320
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for mal

The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for MAK

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193-94


Argeleb I

Seventh King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Argeleb I was the son of Malvegil. He was born in 1226 of the Third Age. Around the year 1300, the Lord of the Nazgul came to the north and established the realm of Angmar. He became known as the Witch-king of Angmar and he made war upon the Dunedain of the North.

Argeleb I became King of Arthedain in 1349. He tried to claim kingship over Cardolan and Rhudaur - the other two kingdoms of the North-kingdom - because no heir of Isildur remained in those realms. But his claim was resisted by Rhudaur, which had been taken over by an evil lord of the Hill-men.

Rhudaur formed an alliance with Angmar and together they attacked Arthedain in 1356. Argeleb I fortified the Weather Hills against their attack, but he was killed in battle. He was succeeded by his son Arveleg I, who managed to drive back the enemy forces with the help of Cardolan and the Elves of Lindon.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Argeleb is uncertain. It may mean "silver king." The element ar means "high, noble, royal." The element geleb may be derived from celeb meaning silver.

Argeleb I was the first in a continuous line of Kings of Arthedain and Chieftains of the Dunedain to have a name beginning with the prefix ar from aran signifying "High King." This was because they considered themselves to be the rightful Kings of the entire North-kingdom of Arnor.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 320
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 193-94
Compound Sindarin Names in ME


Arveleg I

Eighth King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Arveleg I was born in 1309 of the Third Age. He was the son of Argeleb I. Arveleg I became King of Arthedain in 1356 after his father was killed in battle with the forces of Rhudaur and Angmar. Angmar was the realm of the Witch-king who - unbeknownst to the Dunedain - was the Lord of the Nazgul.

Arveleg I drove back the enemy forces with help from the Elves of Lindon and the Dunedain of Cardolan. For over 50 years, Arthedain and Cardolan maintained a frontier along the Weather Hills, the Great East Road, and the lower Hoarwell.

But then in 1409, the Witch-king of Angmar launched an assault against the Dunedain of Arthedain and Cardolan. His forces surrounded Weathertop and the Tower of Amon Sul was destroyed. Arveleg I was killed in the battle. The Dunedain retreated to Fornost. Arveleg's son Araphor, who was still a teenager, managed to defend Fornost and drive back the forces of Angmar with the help of Cirdan and the Elves. Araphor succeeded his father as the ninth King of Arthedain.

Names & Etymology:
Arveleg is composed of ar meaning "royal, king" and veleg from beleg meaning "mighty."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 320-21
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 194
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for beleg


Araphor

Ninth King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Araphor was born in 1391 of the Third Age. He was the son of Arveleg I. After Arveleg was slain by the forces of the Witch-king of Angmar in 1409, Araphor repelled the enemy forces from Fornost and the North Downs with the help of Cirdan the Shipwright from the Grey Havens. Araphor was only about 18 years old at the time. He succeeded his father as King of Arthedain and ruled until his death in 1589. He was in turn succeeded by his son Argeleb II.

Names & Etymology:
The element ara means "royal, king." The element phor means "right-hand."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dundedain," p. 321
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for PHOR

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 194


Argeleb II

King who allowed the Hobbits to settle the Shire. Argeleb II was born in 1473 of the Third Age. On the death of his father Araphor in 1589, he became the tenth King of Arthedain, one of the three kingdoms in the North that formed after the dissolution of Arnor. His seat was at Fornost on the North Downs.

In 1601, Argeleb II granted permission to Marcho and Blanco to lead a party of Hobbits to settle the lands between the Brandywine River and the Far Downs. The King only required that the Hobbits acknowledge his rule, speed his messengers, and repair the roads and bridges, especially the Bridge of Stonebows.

In 1636, the Great Plague came north from Gondor. Many Men and Hobbits died, but the Plague lessened in intensity as it spread and the northern parts of Arthedain were least affected. It was during this time that the Witch-king sent the evil spirits that became the Barrow-wights to occupy the Barrow-downs.

Argeleb II died in 1670. He was succeeded by his son Arvegil.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Argeleb is uncertain. It may mean "silver king." The element ar means "high, noble, royal." The element geleb may be derived from celeb meaning silver.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Prologue: Concerning Hobbits," p. 13
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 321
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 194
Compound Sindarin Names in ME


Arvegil

Eleventh King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Arvegil was born in 1553 of the Third Age. He was the son of Argeleb II. Arvegil became King in 1670. He ruled until his death in 1743 and was succeeded by his son Arveleg II.

Names & Etymology:
The element ar means "king, royal." The element vegil may be a form of megil meaning "sword."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for MAK

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 194
Compound Sindarin Names in ME


Arveleg II

Twelfth King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Arveleg II was born in 1633 of the Third Age. He was the son of Arvegil. Arveleg II became King of Arthedain after his father's death in 1743. He ruled until his death in 1813 and was succeeded by his son Araval.

Names & Etymology:
Arveleg is composed of ar meaning "royal, king" and veleg from beleg meaning "mighty." He was the second King of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 194
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for beleg


Araval

Thirteenth King of Arthedain in the North-kindgom. Araval was born in 1711 of the Third Age. He was the son of Arveleg II. Araval became King of Arthedain after his father's death in 1813.

According to one source (HoME XII, p. 195), Araval won a temporary victory over the forces of the Witch-king of Angmar in 1851. He was aided by the Elves of Lindon and Rivendell. Araval also tried to reoccupy Cardolan, which had once been a part of the North-kingdom, but he was unsuccessful because Cardolan was haunted by Barrow-wights and settlers were afraid to live there.

Araval died in 1891 and was succeeded by his son Araphant.

Names & Etymology:
The name Araval may be derived from ara meaning "king, royal" and val from mal meaning "gold."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 195
Compound Sindarin Names in ME


Araphant

Fourteenth King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Araphant was born in 1789 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Araval.

When Araphant's son was born in 1864, Malbeth the Seer foretold that the end of the North-kingdom was near and he named the child Arvedui, meaning "Last King." In 1940, Arvedui married Firiel, the daughter of King Ondoher of Gondor. Araphant had renewed communications with Gondor in hopes of gaining an ally against the Witch-king of Angmar. Gondor was also under attack at that time. King Araphant and King Ondoher realized that there was a single power behind the attacks on both their Kingdoms, though they did not know it was Sauron. The two Kings took counsel with one another, but neither could spare help or resources to the other.

Araphant died in 1964 and was succeeded by Arvedui, who was in fact the Last King.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Araphant is uncertain. It may mean "supreme king" from ara meaning "king, royal" and pant meaning "full."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for PAT

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 195
Compound Sindarin Names in ME


Arvedui

Last King of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Arvedui, son of Araphant, was born in 1864 of the Third Age. At his birth, it was foretold by Malbeth the Seer that Arvedui would be the last King of Arthedain, which was the last remaining of the three kingdoms into which the North-kingdom of Arnor had been divided. Malbeth counselled Araphant to name him Arvedui, meaning "last king."

Arvedui married Firiel, the daughter of King Ondoher of Gondor, in 1940. When Ondoher and both his sons were killed in battle in 1944, Arvedui made a claim for the throne of Gondor. Arvedui was a direct descendant of Isildur, the eldest son of Elendil who had been the High King of Gondor and Arnor. His wife Firiel was the only surviving child of King Ondoher. In Numenor, women had been able to ascend to the throne, but this was not the case in Gondor. The Council of Gondor led by Pelendur rejected Arvedui's claim and Earnil - a captain of the Royal House - became King of Gondor.

Arvedui did not pursue his claim. He became King of Arthedain on the death of his father in 1964. Arthedain was under increasing threat from the Witch-king of Angmar. In 1973, Arvedui requested aid from King Earnil of Gondor, but help did not arrive in time.

In 1974, the Witch-king attacked Arthedain and seized the capital of Fornost. Arvedui rescued the palantiri of Annuminas and Amon Sul and he fled to the North Downs where he and his men held out for a time. They then retreated to hide in tunnels in the Blue Mountains. When their food ran out, they sought help from the Snowmen who lived on the shore of the Icebay of Forochel. The Snowmen gave them food and shelter from the harsh winter weather.

In March of 1975, Cirdan of the Grey Havens sent a ship to rescue Arvedui. The leader of the Snowmen advised Arvedui not to go but to wait for the spring thaw. Arvedui did not heed his advice. He gave the Ring of Barahir to the leader of the Snowmen as a token of gratitude and he and his men boarded the ship. A great blizzard came from the north and the ship was driven against the ice and its hull was crushed. The palantiri were lost and everyone aboard perished including Arvedui, the Last King.

The North-kingdom was ended and the Dunedain became a wandering people. Arvedui's eldest son Aranarth took the title Chieftain of the Dunedain and through him the line of Isildur was preserved.

Names & Etymology:
Also called Arvedui Last-king. Arvedui means "last king." The element ar means "royal." The element vedui means "last" and is derived from met meaning "end."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 321-23; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for MET

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 195


Chieftains of the Dunedain


Aranarth

First Chieftain of the Dunedain. Aranarth was the son of King Arvedui of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. His mother was Firiel, the daughter of King Ondoher of Gondor. Aranarth had at least one younger brother.

In 1974 of the Third Age, the Witch-king of Angmar attacked Arthedain and captured its capital, Fornost. King Arvedui retreated north to the Icebay of Forochel, while his sons sought the help of Cirdan of the Grey Havens. Cirdan sent a ship to rescue Arvedui, but the King and all hands were lost at Sea.

The Witch-king was defeated at the Battle of Fornost in 1975, but the Dunedain were weakened and scattered, and the North-kingdom ended. Aranarth took the title Chieftain instead of King. In 1976, Aranarth went to dwell for a time at Rivendell, the home of Elrond.

Aranarth's son Arahael was born in 2012. Aranarth had his son fostered at Rivendell in his youth  - a tradition continued by the subsequent Chieftains of the Dunedain. Aranarth died in 2106 and Arahael succeeded him as Chieftain.

Note:
Aranarth's birth date is uncertain. It is given as 1938 of the Third Age in HOME XII, but the date of his parents' marriage is given as two years later in 1940.

Names & Etymology:
Aranarth may mean "noble king." The word aran means "king." The element arth may mean "noble."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 321-23; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196; "The Tale of Years of the Third Age," p. 232
Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary


Arahael

Second Chieftain of the Dunedain. Arahael was born in 2012 of the Third Age. He was the son of Aranarth. As a child, Arahael was sent to Rivendell to be fostered by Elrond. From then on, it became traditional for all the sons of the Chieftains to live at Rivendell in their youth.

Arahael died in 2177 and was succeeded by his son Aranuir.

Names & Etymology:
The name Arahael means "wise king" from ara meaning "king, royal" and hael from sael meaning "wise."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318, 323
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for SAY

The History of Middle-earth, vol. IX, Sauron Defeated: "The Epilogue," p. 126 (on the element hael)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Aranuir

Third Chieftain of the Dunedain. Aranuir was born in 2084 of the Third Age. His father was Arahael. Aranuir succeeded his father as Chieftain in 2177. He died in 2247 and was in turn succeeded by his son Aravir.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Aranuir is uncertain. It may mean "eternal king" from aran meaning "king" and uir meaning "eternity."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for OY

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196
Compound Sindarin Names in ME


Aravir

Fourth Chieftain of the Dunedain. Aravir, son of Aranuir, was born in 2156 of the Third Age. He became Chieftain in 2247 and ruled until his death in 2319. He was succeeded by his son, Aragorn I.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Aravir is uncertain. The element ara means "royal, king." The element vir may be derived from mîr meaning "jewel."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Aragorn I

Fifth Chieftain of the Dunedain. Aragorn I was born in 2227 of the Third Age. He became Chieftain of the Dunedain on the death of his father Aravir in 2319. In 2327, Aragorn I was slain by wolves, which plagued eastern Eriador. He was succeeded by his son Araglas.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Aragorn is not clearly stated, but "kingly valour" may have been the intended meaning. (See Aragorn II: Names & Titles.)

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 323
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: Foreword, p. xii; "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Araglas

Sixth Chieftain of the Dunedain. Araglas was born in 2296 of the Third Age. He was the son of Aragorn I. When Aragorn I was killed by wolves in 2327, Araglas became the leader of his people. Araglas died in 2455 and was succeeded by his son Arahad I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Araglas may mean "royal joy" from ara meaning "royal, king" and glass meaning "joy."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for GALAS

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196
Compound Sindarin Names in ME


Arahad I

Seventh Chieftain of the Dunedain. Arahad I was born in 2365 of the Third Age. He was the son of Araglas. Arahad I became Chieftain of the Dunedain in 2455. Around 2480, Orcs began to make strongholds in the Misty Mountains in order to block the passes into Eriador. Arahad I died in 2523 and was succeeded by his son Aragost.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Arahad is not certain. The element ara means "royal, king." The second element may be had meaning "hurl, throw."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 368
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KHAT

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Aragost

Eighth Chieftain of the Dunedain. Aragost was the son of Arahad I. He was born in 2431 of the Third Age. Aragost became Chieftain of the Dunedain after his father's death in 2523. He ruled until his death in 2588 and was succeeded by his son Aravorn.

Names & Etymology:
The name Aragost may be composed of ara meaning "royal, king" and gost meaning "dread."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for GOS, GOTH

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196, 211


Aravorn

Ninth Chieftain of the Dunedain. Aravorn, son of Aragost, was born in 2497 of the Third Age. He became Chieftain of the Dunedain in 2588. Aravorn died in 2654 and was succeeded by his son Arahad II.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Aravorn is not certain. The element ara means "king, noble, royal." The element vorn may be a lenited form of morn meaning "black."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
Unfinished Tales: Index entry for Eryn Vorn, translated as "Dark Wood."
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for MOR

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Arahad II

Tenth Chieftain of the Dunedain. Arahad II, son of Aravorn, was born in 2563 of the Third Age. He became Chieftain of the Dunedain after his father's death in 2654. Arahad II died in 2719 and was succeeded by his son Arassuil.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Arahad is not certain. The element ara means "royal, king." The second element may be had meaning "hurl, throw."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Northern Line, Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KHAT

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Arassuil

Eleventh Chieftain of the Dunedain. Arassuil was born in 2628 of the Third Age. He was the son of Arahad II. Arassuil became Chieftain of the Dunedain when his father died in 2719.

In 2740, Orcs began to come down from the Misty Mountains into Eriador. The Dunedain fought the Orcs with the help of Elladan and Elrohir, the sons of Elrond. The chief battles were fought between 2745 and 2748. In 2747, a band of Orcs led by Golfimbul invaded the Shire and were defeated by Bandobras Took and the Hobbits in the Battle of Greenfields.

The Long Winter of 2758-59 caused great suffering and loss of life in Eriador, and particularly in the Shire. A famine followed that lasted through the next year.

Arassuil died in 2784 and was succeeded by his son, Arathorn I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Arassuil appears to be derived from the word aran meaning "king" and suil meaning "greeting."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 323-24
The History of Middle-earth, vol. IX, Sauron Defeated: "The Epilogue," p. 128-29 (suilannad/suilad)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Arathorn I

Twelfth Chieftain of the Dunedain. Arathorn, son of Arassuil, was born in 2693 of the Third Age. He succeeded his father as Chieftain of the Dunedain in 2784. Arathorn I died in 2848. His name in "The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur" in Appendix A of The Lord or the Rings is marked with a dagger, indicating a premature or violent death, but the circumstances are not recorded. He was succeeded by his son Argonui.

Names & Etymology:
Arathorn means "king-eagle." The element ara is derived from aran meaning "king." The element þorono or thorono means "eagle."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Annals of the Kings and Rulers," p. 313, "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #347 (meaning of Arathorn)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Argonui

Thirteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain. Argonui was born in 2757 of the Third Age. He was the son of Arathorn I. Argonui had a son named Arador who was born in 2820. Argonui became the Chieftain of his people when his father was killed in 2848. During the Fell Winter of 2911, the Brandywine and other rivers froze. In the floods following the spring thaw, the city of Tharbad was ruined. Argonui died in 2912 and was succeeded by Arador.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Argonui is not known. The element ar means "high, noble, royal." The element gon means "valor" derived from kano meaning "commander." The element ui is an adjectival ending. Thus Argonui may mean "valorous king" or something similar.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KAN

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for ar(a) and kano


Arador

Grandfather of Aragorn, King Elessar. Arador was born in 2820 of the Third Age. He became the fourteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain in 2912 after the death of his father Argonui. Arador's son Arathorn married Gilraen in 2929. One year later in 2930, Arador was killed by Hill-trolls in the Coldfells north of Rivendell.

Names & Etymology:
Arador may mean "royal lord" from the element ara meaning "royal, king" and dor, a form of taur, meaning "high, noble, lofty."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 337-38
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 370
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for TA3

The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196
Compound Sindarin Names in ME


Arathorn II

Father of Aragorn, King Elessar. Arathorn, son of Arador, was born in 2873 of the Third Age. He was a stern man. When Arathorn sought the hand of Gilraen in marriage, her father Dirhael was opposed to the match because of his daughter's youth and because he sensed that Arathorn would be short-lived. But Gilraen's mother Ivorwen convinced her husband to change his mind, saying "If these two wed now, hope may be born for our people; but if they delay, it will not come while this age lasts." (Appendix A, p. 338) The couple was married in 2929.

Arathorn became the fifteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain when his father Arador was slain by Hill-trolls in the Coldfells north of Rivendell in 2930. In 2931, Gilraen bore their only child Aragorn. Two years later, in 2933, Arathorn went out to fight Orcs with Elladan and Elrohir, the sons of Elrond. Arathorn was shot in the eye with an Orc arrow and was killed. He was sixty years old when he died. Arathorn's two-year-old son Aragorn succeeded him as Chieftain of the Dunedain. Aragorn became King of the Reunited Kingdom in 3019.

Names & Etymology:
Arathorn means "king-eagle." The element ara is derived from aran meaning "king." The element þorono or thorono means "eagle."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile: The Northern Line - Heirs of Isildur," p. 318; "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 337-38
Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #347 (meaning of Arathorn)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 196


Aragorn II - King Elessar

See the full-page entry for Aragorn II.


Other Dunedain of the North


Dírhael

Grandfather of Aragorn, King Elessar. Dirhael was a descendant of Aranarth, the first Chieftain of the Dunedain. Dirhael and his wife Ivorwen both had the gift of foresight. They lived in a hidden stronghold in the wilds of Eriador with their daughter Gilraen, who was born in 2907 of the Third Age.

When Gilraen was only about 22 years old, Arathorn - the heir to the Chieftain of the Dunedain - asked to marry her. Dirhael was opposed to the match because he thought his daughter was too young and he foretold that Arathorn would not live long. But he agreed to the marriage on the advice of his wife, who believed that hope would be born of the couple. Arathorn died only four years later, but he had a son by Gilraen named Aragorn who became the King of the Reunited Kingdom.

Names & Etymology:
Dírhael means "wise man" from dír meaning "man" and hael meaning "wise."

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 337-38
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for DER and SAY

The History of Middle-earth, vol. IX, Sauron Defeated: "The Epilogue," p. 126 (meaning of hael)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Making of Appendix A - The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 263


Estelmo

Esquire of Elendur. Estelmo was among the company of 200 knights who set out for Arnor with Elendur and his father Isildur in the year 2 of the Third Age. In the Gladden Fields at dusk on October 4, the company was attacked by Orcs. Estelmo was stunned by a club. When Woodmen and Elves later arrived on the scene, Estelmo was found alive under Elendur's body.

Estelmo was one of only three survivors of the battle. The other two were Ohtar and a companion who had been sent away from the battlefield with the shards of Narsil by Isildur. Estelmo was able to give an account of the battle and he had also overheard the last conversation between Elendur and Isildur. Elendur had persuaded Isildur to flee with the One Ring, but Isildur was also slain and the One Ring was lost in the Anduin.

Names & Etymology:
The name Estelmo contains the word estel meaning "hope" in both Quenya and Sindarin and the Quenya ending -mo used in names and titles.

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 274-76, 282 note 18
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XI, The War of the Jewels: "Maeglin," p. 318 (estel); Quendi and Eldar," p. 400 (-mo ending)


Gilraen

Grave of Gilraen in the New Line film
Gilraen's graveMother of Aragorn, King Elessar. Gilraen was born in 2907 of the Third Age. Her father was Dirhael and her mother was Ivorwen. She was known as Gilraen the Fair.

Gilraen married Arathorn son of Arador in 2929. Her father Dirhael was opposed to the match because he felt Gilraen was too young to marry and because he had a sense of foreboding that Arathorn would not live long. But Ivorwen counselled her husband to acquiesce, saying "If these two wed now, hope may be born for our people; but if they delay, it will not come while this age lasts." (Appendix A, p. 338)

One year later, Arathorn II became Chieftain of the Dunedain when his father was killed by Hill-trolls. Gilraen gave birth to Aragorn on March 1, 2931. In 2933, Arathorn was slain by an Orc arrow. Gilraen took her two-year-old son Aragorn to Rivendell where Elrond accpeted the boy as a foster-son and gave him the name Estel, meaning "Hope."

Gilraen and Aragorn lived together at Rivendell until 2951, when Aragorn turned twenty and was told of his heritage by Elrond. At that time also Aragorn met Elrond's daughter Arwen and fell in love with her. Gilraen noticed a change in her son and questioned him about it. She warned Aragorn that Elrond would not easily consent to a marriage between his only daughter and a mortal Man. Gilraen feared that the line of Isildur would end, and she told Aragorn that it was his fate to wander in the Wild. She said no more to him of her fears and Aragorn left Rivendell to face many perils and hardships.

Aragorn and Arwen plighted their troth in 2980. A few years later, Gilraen left Rivendell and went to live alone near her people in Eriador. She did not often see her son for he continued to journey throughout Middle-earth. When Aragorn came to visit his mother, she foretold her coming death.

"This is our last parting, Estel, my son. I am aged by care, even as one of lesser Men; and now that it draws near I cannot face the darkness of our time that gathers upon Middle-earth. I shall leave soon."
Aragorn tried to comfort her, saying: "Yet there may be a light beyond the darkness; and if so, I would have you see it and be glad."
But she answered only with this linnod: "Onen i-Estel Edain, ú-chebin estel anim - I gave Hope to the Dunedain, I have kept no hope for myself."
Appendix A: "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 342
Gilraen died before the next spring in 3007. Her son Aragorn became King of the Reunited Kingdom on May 1, 3019.

Names & Etymology:
Tolkien defined the name Gilraen as meaning "one adorned with a tressure set with small gems in its network," such as the cap of silver lace and gems worn by Arwen when Frodo first saw her at Rivendell. (A tressure is a medieval word for a net confining the hair.)

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 337-40, 342
"The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor," by J.R.R. Tolkien, edited by Carl F. Hostetter, commentary by Christopher Tolkien, in Vinyar Tengwar #42, July 2001, p. 11-13 (Etymology of Gilraen)


Halbarad

Decipher card of Halbarad
HalbaradRanger of the North, leader of the Grey Company. Halbarad was among the Rangers who guarded the Shire at the end of the Third Age. He said of the Hobbits, "A little people, but of great worth are the Shire-folk. Little do they know of our long labour for the safekeeping of their borders, and yet I grudge it not." (RotK, p. 53)

In response to a message sent to Rivendell by Galadriel, Halbarad led the Grey Company comprised of 30 Dunedain south to the aid of their kinsman Aragorn. With them rode Elladan and Elrohir, the sons of Elrond. They caught up with Aragorn near the Fords of Isen in Rohan in the early hours of March 6, 3019. Halbarad brought Aragorn a message from Arwen as well as a standard made by her, which Aragorn asked Halbarad to keep for him for a while.

Halbarad accompanied Aragorn to a chamber high in the Hornburg where Aragorn looked into the palantir and revealed himself to Sauron. That morning Aragorn decided to take the Paths of the Dead under the White Mountains and Halbarad and Grey Company went with him along with Legolas and Gimli. When they reached the entrance at daybreak on March 8, Halbarad said, "This is an evil door, and my death lies beyond it. I will dare to pass it nonetheless..." (RotK, p. 59)

At midnight at the Stone of Erech, Aragorn summoned the Dead to fulfill their oaths and Halbarad unfurled Aragorn's standard, which appeared black with no device in the darkness. The Grey Company and the Dead passed through the lands of the South to Pelargir, where they captured the fleet of the Corsairs. Aragorn dismissed the Dead, and the Grey Company sailed up the Anduin.

When they arrived at the Pelennor Fields on March 15 in the midst of the battle, Aragorn's standard was once again unfurled but now it was seen to bear the emblem of the White Tree of Gondor and the Seven Stars and Crown of Elendil. Halbarad carried the standard onto the battlefield, where he was killed.

Names & Etymology:
The word hal means "tall" and barad means "tower."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "The Passing of the Grey Company," p. 47-49, 51, 53, 55, 59, 63 and passim; "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 123-24


Ivorwen

Grandmother of Aragorn, King Elessar. Ivorwen was the daughter of Gilbarad. She married Dirhael and they had a daughter named Gilraen, born in 2907 of the Third Age. Their home was hidden in the wilds of Eriador. Ivorwen and her husband were descendants of Isildur, though not of the direct line of Kings. They were both gifted with foresight.

In 2929, Gilraen married Arathorn, the heir to the Chieftain of the Dunedain. Dirhael had been opposed to the match because of Gilraen's youth and because he foresaw that Arathorn would not live long. But Ivorwen also had a premonition, and she advised her husband to allow the marriage:

"The days are darkening before the storm, and great things are to come. If these two wed now, hope may be born for our people; but if they delay, it will not come while this age lasts."
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 338
Arathorn lived only four more years, but from his brief union with Gilraen was born Aragorn. Ivorwen was at Aragorn's naming, and she interpreted his name to mean "Kingly Valour," saying:
"that he shall have, but I see on his breast a green stone, and from that his true name shall come and his chief renown: for he shall be a healer and a renewer."
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: Foreword, p. xii
The green stone that Ivorwen saw was the Elessar given to Aragorn by Galadriel, and Elessar was the name by which Aragorn became known as the King of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor.

Names and Etymology:
The meaning of Ivorwen is not known. It has been speculated that ivor may mean "crystal," based on the description of the crystal waters of Eithel Ivrin, the source of the Narog in Beleriand. (Silmarillion, p. 209-10) But the words ivor and ivrin are nowhere defined, and may not even be related.

The ending wen means "maiden." Ivorwen would therefore mean "crystal maiden" if the speculated definition of ivor is correct.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 337-38
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: Foreword, p. xii; "The Making of Appendix A," p. 263
Tolkien Language Archives


Malbeth the Seer

Seer of Arthedain. Malbeth made at least two accurate prophecies concerning the future of the line of Isildur.

In 1864 of the Third Age, Malbeth advised Araphant to name his newborn son Arvedui, meaning "last king":

"Arvedui you shall call him, for he will be the last in Arthedain. Though a choice will come to the Dunedain, and if they take the one that seems less hopeful, then your son will change his name and become king of a great realm. If not, then much sorrow and many lives of men shall pass, until the Dunedain arise and are united again."
Appendix A: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 330
Malbeth's prophecy came to pass in 1975. King Arvedui was driven into the far north by the Witch-king of Angmar and was stranded in the land of the Snowmen by the harsh winter. A ship came to rescue him, but the Snowmen advised him to wait for the thaw. Arvedui did not heed their advice, and he was killed in a shipwreck. The North-kingdom ended and the line of Isildur was continued by the Chieftains of the Dunedain for many generations.

A second prophecy, made by Malbeth sometime during the reign of Arvedui (1964-1975), spoke of a future Heir of Isildur:

"Over the land there lies a long shadow,
westward reaching wings of darkness.
The Tower trembles; to the tombs of kings
doom approaches. The Dead awaken;
for the hour is come for the oathbreakers;
at the Stone of Erech they shall stand again
and hear there a horn in the hills ringing.
Whose shall the horn be? Who shall call them
from the grey twilight, the forgotten people?
The heir of him to whom the oath they swore.
From the North shall he come, need shall drive him:
he shall pass the Door to the Paths of the Dead."
The Return of the King: "The Passing of the Grey Company," p. 54
During the War of the Ring in 3019, Elrond sent word to Aragorn, the sixteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain, to remember Malbeth's prophecy about the Paths of the Dead if he was in need of haste. When Aragorn looked into the palantir and learned that Gondor was threatened from the South by Corsairs, he realized that only by taking the Paths of the Dead would he get there in time.

Aragorn was followed through the Paths of the Dead by the Dead who had broken their oath to Isildur to fight Sauron. At the Stone of Erech, Aragorn told the Oathbreakers that he was Isildur's heir. The Dead fulfilled their oath by defeating the Corsairs, and with the threat from the South removed, Aragorn sailed to the aid of Minas Tirith. Thus the second prophecy of Malbeth came to pass.

Names & Etymology:
Malbeth means "golden word." The element mal means "gold." The element beth is a lenited form of peth which means "word."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "The Passing of the Grey Company," p. 48, 54, and passim.
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 321-23; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 330
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for mal

The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KWET- (and PET-)


Ohtar

Esquire of Isildur who saved the shards of Narsil. Ohtar was a kinsman of Isildur and was dear to him. His real name is not known. Ohtar was his rank, meaning a trained warrior who had not yet become a roquen, or knight.

In the year 2 of the Third Age, Ohtar accompanied Isildur on his journey to Arnor. They set out on September 5 with Isildur's three eldest sons and a company of 200 knights. They travelled north along the east side of the Anduin.

In the Gladden Fields at dusk on October 4, they were attacked by Orcs. Isildur gave the shards of Narsil to Ohtar and ordered him to take a companion and flee in order to save the sword from capture. Ohtar knelt and kissed Isildur's hand and he and his companion escaped. The rest of the company were killed except for Elendur's esquire Estelmo. Isildur also perished and the One Ring was lost in the Anduin.

In the year 3, Ohtar reached Rivendell and gave the shards of Narsil to Isildur's youngest son Valandil. The shards were passed down through the generations to Aragorn, who had the Elven-smith reforge them into Anduril.

Names & Etymology:
Ohtar was a military rank meaning "warrior, soldier" in Quenya. It was used for those who were trained and experienced but had not yet attained the rank of roquen, or "knight." Isildur is said to have addressed his esquire as "Ohtar" in order to hide his feelings under formality as the Orcs attacked. The real name of Isildur's esquire is not recorded.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Council of Elrond," p. 257
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 366
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 271-75, 282 notes 17 and 18
The Silmarillion: "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age," p. 295


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